Semiconductor-based electron flying qubits: review on recent progress accelerated by numerical modelling
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, Institut Néel, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38000, Grenoble, France
2 PHELIQS, Université Grenoble Alpes, CEA, Grenoble INP, IRIG, 38000, Grenoble, France
3 James Watt School of Engineering, Electronics and Nanoscale Engineering, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, G12 8QQ, Glasgow, United Kingdom
4 SPEC, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, 91191, Gif sur Yvette, France
5 National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, TW11 0LW, Teddington, Middlesex, United Kingdom
6 Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96, Göteborg, Sweden
7 nextnano GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Platz 8, 81829, München, Germany
8 nextnano Lab, 12 chemin des prunelles, 38700, Corenc, France
Accepted: 12 July 2022
Published online: 10 August 2022
The progress of charge manipulation in semiconductor-based nanoscale devices opened up a novel route to realise a flying qubit with a single electron. In the present review, we introduce the concept of these electron flying qubits, discuss their most promising realisations and show how numerical simulations are applicable to accelerate experimental development cycles. Addressing the technological challenges of flying qubits that are currently faced by academia and quantum enterprises, we underline the relevance of interdisciplinary cooperation to move emerging quantum industry forward. The review consists of two main sections:
Pathways towards the electron flying qubit: We address three routes of single-electron transport in GaAs-based devices focusing on surface acoustic waves, hot-electron emission from quantum dot pumps and Levitons. For each approach, we discuss latest experimental results and point out how numerical simulations facilitate engineering the electron flying qubit.
Numerical modelling of quantum devices: We review the full stack of numerical simulations needed for fabrication of the flying qubits. Choosing appropriate models, examples of basic quantum mechanical simulations are explained in detail. We discuss applications of open-source (KWANT) and the commercial (nextnano) platforms for modelling the flying qubits. The discussion points out the large relevance of software tools to design quantum devices tailored for efficient operation.
Key words: Quantum computers / Electron flying qubits / GaAs/AlGaAs based nanodevices / Modelling quantum nanodevices
© The Author(s) 2022
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.